Technical Ingredients in products

 
Technical Ingredients in products

Ingredient Name

Source
 
  A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z  
 
 

Alcohol denat. (Denatured alcohol)

  Our alcohol is made from organic rye. It is denatured to make it undrinkable, but it is safe for external use. It helps mix oil- and water-based ingredients and it has a preservative action.

Allantoin

 

Allantoin appears as a white crystalline powder which may be incorporated into a wide range of cosmetic preparations. It is considered a soothing substance for irritated skin and it is claimed to have some effect on the repair of wounds but there is no scientific substantiation to these claims. Allantoin is a keratolytic substance which means that it is able to soften and dissolve the keratin (horny) layer of the skin, by virtue of its action on the keratin protein that makes up this layer. It is a common ingredient in moisturising substances and products used to diminish skin irritation. It is used, for example, in treating thickened, dry skin, and cracked lips and it is a common ingredient in shampoos for the treatment of dandruff. Allantoin is found in Comfrey. When comfrey is applied fresh to wounds, sores or ulcers, the mucilage containing the allantoin dries and then thickens and contracts drawing the sides of the wound together, inhibiting infection. Where the wound is fairly superficial it can heal the skin with little scarring.
See COMFREY

Ammonium lauryl sulphate

 

This surfactant (see surfactants) along with SLS (Sodium Lauryl Sulfate/Sulphate) belongs to the category of alkyl sulfates/sulphates. They are produced by sulfation of the corresponding fatty alcohol and then neutralised by respectively ammonia (ALS) or Sodium Hydroxide (SLS). SLES (Sodium Laureth Sulphate) is an ethoxylated version of SLS: ethoxylation makes it more hydrophilic. ALS and SLS are considered natural simply because they do not undergo ethoxylation (which is not allowed by natural/organic Standards). ALS is a good foaming agent especially in hard water. The fatty alcohols used to manufacture this grade are derived from coconut. It is used in shampoos. See also DETERGENT

Apricot oil polyglyceryl 10 esters

 

This is a category of ingredients produced by the esterification of the fatty acids derived from Apricot Kernel Oil and Polyglycerin-10 (a polymer made by 10 molecules of glycerine). It has a typical amphiphilic structure, i.e. it has both a hydrophilic and a lipophilic chain. For this reason these substances are good dispersing agents utilised to carry oils into water, for example an essential oil into the water in the bath tub. They also have good emollient, hydration and moisturising properties. See also APRICOT KERNEL OIL

Ascorbyl palmitate

 

An antioxidant derived from vitamin C. The cosmetic industry shows great interest in Vitamin C due to its antioxidant properties but its use is limited by its instability in aqueous system (most cosmetic products contain water). Ascorbyl palmitate is an ester derived from Ascorbic Acid and Palmitic Acid (a vegetable derived fatty acid). Ascorbyl Palmitate can be defined as an oil-soluble form of Vitamin C and it is stable in cosmetic preparations. It is also used to prevent rancidity of vegetable oils.

Beeswax (Cera alba, Cera flava - white, yellow beeswax)

 

Beeswax is produced by bees to make the walls of the honeycomb in which the honey is stored. And just as beeswax protects the honey, so, cosmetically, it can play a role in protecting one's complexion. Traditionally it is found in moisturising, cleansing creams and ointments. It has a thick waxy texture which is good for use on stressed areas of exposed skin, such as the hands or the lips. Our beeswax is sourced from New Zealand and is organic. 

Benzoic acid

 

Benzoic Acid and its salts (e.g. Sodium Benzoate) are used as a preservative in the cosmetic as well as in the food industry. It derives its name from the gum Benzoin: traditionally Benzoic Acid used to be extracted from this natural resin. With an increase in consumption, Benzoic Acid is now only available as a synthetic ingredient - natural extraction would not be sustainable and it would be detrimental for the environment. Benzoic Acid is defined a "nature identical" substance: it exist in nature, but it is synthetically made in order to preserve nature. The synthetic and the nature-occurring molecules are exactly the same. Its use is allowed in natural/organic cosmetic products, however we do not intentionally use it. Benzoic Acid / Sodium Benzoate can be found in some ingredients that we use; this is why it may appear on the Ingredient list of some products of ours.
See also antibacterial.

Benzyl alcohol

 

It is a substance extracted from plants and fruits e.g. lavender and orange. Some essential oils do contain Benzyl Alcohol. Benzyl Alcohol is an allergen and can be used as a preservative in natural/organic cosmetic products. We have not used Benzyl Alcohol as an ingredient in new formulations since 2012, however it can be found in many of the essential oils that we use in our products. It is a safe antibacterial agent and has a pleasant odour.

Benzyl benzoate

 

Benzyl benzoate is a naturally occurring allergen found in some essential oils we use. It has a fixative action, helping to stabilise and maintain the blended fragrance in a product.

Benzyl cinnamate

 

Benzyl cinnamate is a naturally occurring allergen found in some essential oils we use, such as cinnamon, helichrysum and lemongrass. It is also found in benzoin resin.

Benzyl salicylate

 

Benzyl salicylate is a naturally occurring allergen found in some essential oils we use, such as ylang ylang.

Bisabolol

 

The main active ingredient in chamomile which has excellent skin healing properties. It can be used separately from chamomile but is used in concentrated form to emphasise chamomile's skin healing capacity.

   

Capric triglycerides

 

It can be described as a clear, all-vegetable derived triester possessing unusual lubricity and emolliency. It is very light in colour and is low in viscosity resulting in a smooth, silky, emollient feel on the skin.

Cetearyl alcohol

 

This is a solid substance, usually referred to as "wax", widely used in the cosmetic industry to impart body and consistency to emulsion based products for both skin-care and personal-care applications. It is typically derived from palm oil. It is a mixture of fatty alcohols, predominantly Cetyl and Stearyl Alcohol.

Cetearyl glucoside

 

This is a vegetable-derived oil-in-water emulsifier derived from the condensation of Cetearyl Alcohol with Glucose.

Cetearyl olivate

 

This is a vegetable-derived oil-in-water emulsifier derived from the esterification of Cetearyl Alcohol and the fatty acids derived from olive oil.

Cetrimonium chloride

 

It is a quaternary ammonium compound used for its conditioning properties. It carries a cationic charge that can neutralise the anionic charge of the hair, therefore conditioning it.

Cetyl alcohol

 

This is a solid substance, usually referred to as "wax", widely used in the cosmetic industry to impart body and consistency to emulsion based products for both skin-care and personal-care applications. It is typically derived from palm oil.

Cinnamal

 

Cinnamal occurs naturally in some essential oils we use, such as cinnamon, lemon, lemongrass and petitgrain. Some people are sensitive to this constituent. 

Cinnamyl alcohol

 

Cinnamyl alcohol occurs naturally in some essential oils we use such as cinnamon. Some people are sensitive to this constituent.

Citral

 

Citral occurs naturally in some essential oils we use such as bergamot, eucalyptus, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, lavandin, lime, litsea, orange, palmarosa and rose. It has lemony scent. Some people are sensitive to this constituent.

Citric acid

 

Citric acid is a natural occurring fruit acid, produced commercially by microbial fermentation of a carbohydrate substrate. It is widely used in the cosmetic industry to adjust the pH to acidic values (i.e. below 7).

Citronellol

 

Citronellol occurs naturally in some essential oils we use such as basil, chamomile, coriander, eucalyptus, geranium, lemongrass, melissa, Roman chamomile, rose and tagetes. Some people are sensitive to this constituent.

Cocamidopropyl betaine

 

A surfactant. It is a derivative of Betaine (aka N,N,N-trimethylglycine), a substance that can be found in sugar beet. Cocamidopropyl Betaine (CAPB) is made by reacting fatty acids from coconut oil and Dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA) with Betaine. Currently DMAPA can only be sourced via petrochemistry. This reaction generates an amphoteric surfactant, i.e. a substance that shows both cationic and anionic behaviour depending on pH. It is widely used in personal-care products as it has a very good foaming power combined with an extremely mild toxicology profile. It shows also detoxifying power for more irritant surfactants, e.g. SLS, ALS, SLES - this means that CAPB used in conjuction with other surfactants will lower the irritancy potential of the mixture.

Cocoa butter (organic & fair trade)

 

A solid fat obtained from pressing the roasted seeds of the cocoa beans of the South American cocoa tree. No chemical processes are involved in its extraction. Cocoa Butter is used as an emollient and conditioning agent, as well as in the production of ointments, lotions and skin-softening cosmetic creams - especially for treating wrinkles. It is a useful body moisturiser and has a reputation for helping to prevent stretchmarks. Melting at body temperature Cocoa Butter penetrates the skin and then leaves it with a silky finish. Cocoa Butter is also used as a lubricant in the manufacture of suppositories. 

Coconut acid

 

This name identifies the fatty acids extracted from coconut oil. This ingredient is typically used in toiletries for its cleansing and foam boosting properties. 

Corn starch (organic)

 

Starch obtained from corn and used as a thickening agent, stabiliser and absorbent powder. This pure, renewable, natural ingredient has similar absorbent and aesthetic properties to talc. It is vegetable derived while talc is of mineral origin. In the Baby Powder it is used as a natural alternative to talc, which can lead to lung problems if inhaled.

Coumarin

 

Coumarin occurs naturally in many plants, giving them a sweet clover smell. Some people are sensitive to this constituent. 

   

Dead Sea salt

 

The sea contains a complex combination of minerals and other trace elements similar to that which regulates our cellular metabolism. The therapeutic value of salt is well known not only for its mineral content but also for its antiseptic and deep cleansing properties. People gargle with salt water and use it for cleansing and purifying. In addition, many people find a salt bath relaxing. The Dead Sea Salts are not washed or chemically treated or heated and contain no additives whatsoever. They are considered to be one of nature's finest recipes for health and beauty. For further details see product DEAD SEA SALTS

Decyl glucoside Lauryl glucoside

 

This is a naturally derived non-ionic surfactant with good foaming and cleansing properties as well as having a favourable dermatology profile. It is derived from fatty acids of vegetabel origin and sugar. 

D-limonene
Limonene

 

See limonene.

   

Esculin
Aesculin

 

Naturally derived from HORSECHESTNUT bark, esculin is a skin protectant with UV absorptive properties. It is used as a low level sunscreen.

Ethylhexylmethoxycinnamate

 

Ethylhexylmethoxycinnamate is an active ingredient in our sun products (Lemongrass Sun Spray SPF15 and Sun Protection SPF15 (Medium) Organic Lip Formula), this is a UV absorber that helps protect skin from the sun’s burning rays.

Eugenol

 

Eugenol is an allergen that occurs naturally in some essential oils we use, such as basil, bay, cinnamon, clove, lemongrass, palmarosa, petitgrain, rose, tagetes and ylang ylang. It has a pleasant, spicy aroma. Some people are sensitive to this constituent.

Farnesol

 

Farnesol is an allergen that occurs naturally in some essential oils we use, such as eucalyptus, lemongrass, neroli, palmarosa, rose and ylang ylang. It emphasises the aroma of other sweet, floral scents. Some people are sensitive to this constituent. 

   

Geraniol

 

Geraniol occurs naturally in some essential oils we use, such as chamomile, citronella, clary sage, coriander, geranium, ho leaf, lavandin, lavender, lemon, lemongrass, marjoram, neroli, Roman chamomile, rose, Spanish sage and ylang ylang. Some people are sensitive to this constituent.

Glycerine (organic / non organic)
Glycerin

 

Glycerine is probably one of the most widely known and used ingredient in cosmetic products. It is a colourless and odourless thick liquid and is a by-product of the saponification process of vegetable oils. It is mainly used as a solvent and is a good humectant, i.e it has hydrating properties. We use organic (preferably) and non-organic Glycerine: both are non-palm derived, i.e organic certified glycerine comes from karanja oil while non-organic glycerine comes from coconut oil. For more information see product notes on GLYCERIN. See also SOAPS

Glyceryl laurate

 

A naturally-derived surfactant that shows some anti-microbial properties.

Glyceryl stearate

 

Glyceryl Stearate is a naturally-derived monoester of Glycerine and Stearic Acid. It is used as a primary emulsifier in water-in-oil emulsions and as a co-emulsifier in oil-in-water emulsions. It can also be used to build viscosity and body in emulsions and as an opacifier in surfactant systems. It also has emollient properties.

 

 

   

Hectorite

 

Hectorite is a mineral with the consistency of clay. It is used in cosmetics as a thickener and emulsifier. It helps keep water-based and oil-based ingredients in suspension. Products with hectorite need to be shaken before use.

Honey (organic)
Mel

 

Honey’s emollient action soothes and softens the skin. It is also antiseptic so it not only adds to a product’s preservative system, but it may also help to reduce microbial growth on the skin. All our honey is certified organic. The honey in our Sensual Jasmine range is certified organic and fair trade. The organic manuka honey from New Zealand in our Winter Warmer has an activity rating of 15 (Unique Manuka Factor).  

   

Isoeugenol

 

Isoeugenol occurs naturally in some essential oils we use, such as clove, lime, litsea and ylang ylang. It has a sweet scent like vanilla. Some people are sensitive to this constituent.

   

Kaolin
China clay

 

Kaolin is a white, powdery clay that can absorb high quantities of moisture. Used in facial masks, kaolin helps draw impurities from the skin to provide a deep-cleansing and purifying action.

   

Lanolin

 

Lanolin is prepared from an oily residue washed off the wool of living sheep. It has excellent emollient and thickening properties, so we use it to thicken our hair conditioners and some creams. It helps hair and skin retain moisture.

Lanolin alcohol

 

Lanolin alcohol is made from lanolin. It has emollient and thickening properties. We use it in Rose Body Cream, as it gives the product its rich, velvety texture. It also adds to the bright, glossy appearance of the cream.

Lauryl betaine

 

Lauryl betaine is a very mild detergent that we use in our gel-based products such as shampoos and foaming baths. When combined with other surfactants, it creates a milder formulation and reduces the possibility of irritation.

Lauryl glucoside

 

See decyl glucoside

Lecithin

 

Naturally occurring in the human body and plants such as soya, lecithin is a fat-soluble compound used in cosmetics as a thickener and emulsifier. We also use it in our moisturisers and creams for its emollient and antioxidant properties.

Levulinic acid

 

Levulinic acid occurs naturally in sugar cane and is derived from starches. It is a naturally occurring preservative, so inclusion of this ingredient in our creams and bath products means we don’t have to rely heavily on conventional preservatives.

Limonene

 

Limonene occurs naturally in many essential oils we use: bay, bergamot, black pepper, chamomile, cistus, citronella, clary sage, coriander, cypress, elemi, eucalyptus, frankincense, galbanum, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, helichrysum, ho leaf, juniper, lavandin, lavender, lemongrass, lime, litsea, mandarin, neroli, niaouli, orange, palmarosa, peppermint, petitgrain, pine, Roman chamomile, rosemary, Spanish sage, spearmint (garden mint), tagetes and tea tree. It smells like oranges and is used as a natural flavour in our toothpastes. Some people are sensitive to this constituent.

Linalool

 

Linalool occurs naturally in many essential oils we use: basil, bay, bergamot, black pepper, chamomile, cinnamon, cistus, citronella, clary sage, coriander, cypress, eucalyptus, geranium, ginger, helichrysum, ho leaf, lavandin, lavender, lemon, lime, litsea, mandarin, marjoram, neroli, niaouli, palmarosa, peppermint, petitgrain, pine, rose, rosemary, Spanish sage, spearmint (garden mint), tagetes, thyme, violet absolute, yarrow and ylang ylang. Some people are sensitive to this constituent.

   

Magnesium carbonate

 

Magnesium carbonate absorbs moisture readily. In our body powders it absorbs moisture that would otherwise prevent the corn starch from flowing freely. We therefore use it as a flowing agent.

Montmorillonite Red clay

 

Montmorillonite, more commonly known as red clay, has been used in cosmetics for thousands of years, it is deeply absorptive and cleansing. It absorbs the skin’s oils and toxins, while its high mineral content improves the skin’s circulation and general health.

   

Octyl palmitate

 

Octyl palmitate is used in our Avocado & Vitamin E Night Cream and Comfrey & Mallow Foot Balm for its rich, moisturising and softening capacity.

   

Palmitoyl tripeptide-5

 

A bio-active derived from palmitic acid (from plant oils) combined with animo acids to helps to stimulate collagen formation.

Panthenol

 

Panthenol is a precursor to vitamin B5, which means it is converted into this vitamin when absorbed by the body. It encourages cell growth and is moisturising, which is why we add it to some of our cleansers and lotions.

Parfum

 

‘Parfum’ indicates a mixture of aromatic ingredients that are designed to fragrance a product. Our products are fragranced only by pure essential oils only. We prefer to list all our ingredients, so you only see 'parfum' in a couple of cases where we are restricted by the amount of space on our labels.

Peach powder

 

A natural exfoliant made from the pith of the peach.

Peg-40 hydrogenated castor oil

 

This is an emollient that is softening and lubricating to the skin. It is made from a blend of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and castor oil. It also acts as a preservative.

Phenoxyethanol

 

Phenoxyethanol is a preservative. It is particularly effective at protecting water-based products, such as moisturisers, from bacterial contamination. It is mild enough to be used safely on the skin.

Polysorbate-20

 

Polysorbate-20 is a viscous liquid that we use in our flower waters and shampoos to help emulsify and stabilise these water- and oil-based formulations.

Polysorbate-60

 

Polysorbate-60 is used in some of our cream cleansers and moisturisers for its emulsifying action. It helps to bind and stabilise our water-based ingredients with our oil-based ingredients.

Potassium sorbate

 

Potassium sorbate is used widely in the food and cosmetics industry as a preservative. We add it to many of our moisturisers and hair care products to give them a gentle preservative system that guards against yeasts, moulds and fungi.

Propolis extract (organic)

 

Propolis is produced by bees from a resinous substance collected from trees. It is used to protect the hive. Its antimicrobial action makes it useful in cosmetics as it helps to protect and repair the skin. All our propolis is certified organic.

Pumice powder

 

Obtained from porous volcanic rock, we use pumice powder in our Pumice Foot Scrub and Seaweed Salt Scrub for its gently abrasive cleansing action. It helps to remove dead or hardened skin, cleansing and softening at the same time.

Pure sea salt

 

Sourced from French salt marshes, we use pure sea salt in our Lavender Bath Salts. Sea salt is rich in minerals and is antiseptic and cleansing. It is deeply relaxing and helps to loosen muscles and refresh the skin.

   

Sclerotium gum

 

Sclerotium gum is obtained from the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii. It is a natural thickener that promotes hydration of the skin and the product itself. It also helps to stabilise the emulsion of other ingredients in a product.

Shea butter (organic)
Butyrospermum parkii

 

The butter produced from the nut of the African Karite tree has been long used for its superior moisturising properties. Our shea nut butter is produced in Ghana and is certified organic.

Sodium castorate

 

Sodium castorate is the soap created from castor oil when it is mixed with sodium hydroxide. It cleans and soothes, and provides a waterproof coating on the skin so it doesn’t dry out. It is in our Citrus Hand Wash.

Sodium citrate

 

Sodium citrate is a salt derived from citric acid. It has a preservative action, and as a buffer, it helps regulate acidity in products. It is commonly used in the food and cosmetics industry.

Sodium cocoate

 

Sodium cocoate is the soap created from coconut oil when it is mixed with sodium hydroxide. It gives a good lather and cleanses without being harsh. It forms the base of many of our soaps, along with sodium palmate.

Sodium hyaluronate

 

Sodium hyaluronate is found naturally in the body. It boosts skin moisture levels and smoothes out wrinkles to give the skin a soft finish. It is also a gelling agent that keeps ingredients together and to refine a product’s texture.

Sodium hydroxide
Caustic soda lye

 

Sodium hydroxide’s main use is in the formation of soap, when it is usually combined with palm oil or coconut oil.

Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate

 

This is a mild foaming and cleansing agent which effectively removes surface oil, dirt and bacteria from the skin or hair.

Sodium methyl coco taurate Sodium methyl cocoyl taurate

 

This is in our Seaweed & Arnica Foaming Bath for its foaming and cleansing actions. It is fairly mild but its combination with lauryl betaine makes it even milder. It is derived from coconut and taurine, an amino acid.

Sodium palmate

 

Sodium palmate is the soap created from palm oil when it is mixed with sodium hydroxide. It lathers and cleanses well without being harsh. It forms the base of many of our soaps, along with sodium cocoate.

Sodium usnate

 

An extract derived from lichen, it is used in our deodorants for its antibacterial properties.

Sorbitan olivate

 

Derived from olive oil, sorbitan olivate is an emulsifier that is often blended with cetearyl olivate. Together, these emulsifiers help mix oil- and water-based ingredients and help to give a product a luxurious, smooth feel.

Sorbitan stearate

 

Sorbitan stearate is an emulsifier that we use in many of our moisturisers and bath oils. It helps blend water- and oil-based ingredients; in particular it solubilises essential oils in water.

Stearic acid

 

Stearic acid, derived from coconut or palm oil, is in our Red Clay Shaving Gel to emulsify the ingredients and give the product a smooth finish. It also helps to soften the skin and hair, which lessens skin aggravation.

Sucrose distearate

 

Sucrose distearate is formed from sugar and stearic acid, a natural fatty acid derived form coconut or palm oil. It is an emulsifier and is used in our After Shave Balm to blend the essential oils with the water-based ingredients.

Sucrose stearate

 

Sucrose stearate is formed from sugar and stearic acid. It is not as strong an emulsifer as sucrose distearate, but it is used in some of our lighter moisturisers to help mix the ingredients together. 

   

Tocopherol
Vitamin E

 

Tocopherol is vitamin E, which is extracted from vegetable oils. It exhibits antioxidant activity, which means it not only preserves the products that it is in, but it also can help to give some antioxidants and nourishment to the skin.

Tocopheryl acetate
Tocopherol acetate

 

Tocopheryl acetate is a thick, oily liquid that is derived from tocopherol, or vitamin E. It is very nourishing and protects the skin from harmful environmental effects with its anti.

   

Water (Aqua)

 

Water is an essential component for healthy looking skin and hair, as it cleans and moisturises. It is also necessary to dissolve water-soluble ingredients in a product and therefore forms the base of many of them.

   

Xanthan gum

 

Xanthan gum is derived from corn. It is a mild thickener, emulsifier and stabiliser that we use in many of our products to enhance their consistency.

   

Zinc oxide CI77947

  Zinc oxide is insoluble in water, forming a protective barrier when applied to the skin. In our sunscreens it increases water-resistance and protection from UV rays. In Baby Barrier it is used for its mildly astringent, antiseptic and water-resistant properties.